POL Democracy and Diversity - NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class–10 Social Science
NCERT Solutions
Political Science Chapter 3
Democracy and Diversity

Question 1: Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
: Three factors which determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions:
  • Points of view of people: In a democracy, a people's point of view is very important in looking at social differences. If they look at these differences in context of each other, or they see their identities in terms of belonging exclusively to one social group, this point of view is very difficult to adjust in society. But if they pee their identity as multiple duty and they perceive it as complementary to national identity, then this type of division is not destructive but rather constructive for the society. With this, all the weaker section of the society will get representation in our political system. The outcome depends on how people perceive their identities.
  • Role of leaders: Second important factor is the way in which our political leaders raise their demands for the different social groups. If the demands are raised in a peaceful manner and by giving preference to demand of the other groups, then it will be constructive for the society. But if leaders raise their demands at the cost of the other groups, then the society will move towards conflict. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
  • The government's reaction: Third important factor in this is the reaction of the government towards these demands. If the government shares power with all the groups, even with minorities, the social division will be of no threat to the country. But if they try to suppress those demands, then it will only lead to disintegration or separatism. Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.
In a democracy political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to the strengthening of democracy.

Question 2: When does a social difference become a social division?
: A social difference becomes a social division when it overlaps with some other social difference. Social differences divide similar people from one another.
For example, Black and whites of USA. The main social difference between them is that they belong to different races. But when another set of differences join that set, such as one section is poor and homeless, another section is rich and affluent, then it becomes a case of social division and produces the feeling that they both are of different communities. When one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other it becomes a social division.

Question 3: How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.
: In politics, there is competition between political parties. If these political parties use this competition in support of some social divisions, it can lead to political divisions. This can lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
  • One example is of Northern Ireland where religious divisions led to ethnopolitical conflict. Two major sects of Christianity: 53% Protestants and 44% Catholics dominate the country. The Catholics wanted Northern Ireland to join the Republic of Ireland and the Protestants wanted to remain with the UK. This led to years of violence where thousands were killed. Only in 1998, peace returned when the UK government and the Nationalists reached a peace treaty and stopped all violence.
  • The second example is of Yugoslavia where the political parties refused to accommodate each other. Each ethno- religious group wanted to dominate the other. Result –the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries. Hence politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix.

Question 4: _______ social differences create possibilities for deep social divisions and tensions. _______ social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
 Overlapping social differences create possibilities for deep social divisions and tensions. Cross cutting social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Overlapping differences is the mixture of one or more differences caused by one main difference. Situations of this kind produce social divisions when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against others. It means that a group that share a common interest in one issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue.

Question 5: In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
(a) Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.
(b) In a democracy, it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.
(c) Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
(d) Democracy always leads to the disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Answer: (d) Democracy always leads to the disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Explanation: In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about divisions and make different promises to different communities which leads to the disintegration of society.

Question 6: Consider the following three statements.
A. Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.
B. It is possible that a person can have multiple identities.
C. Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B and C (b) A and B (c) B and C (d) Only C

Answer : (b) A and B
Explanation: Social division of one kind or another exist in most countries. It does not matter whether the country is small or big.

Question 7: Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers by using the code given below.
A. But all political expression of social divisions need not be always dangerous.
B. Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries.
C. Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
D. Some social differences may result in social divisions.
(a) D, B, C, A (b) D, B, A, C (c) D, A, C, B (d) A, B, C, D

Answer : (a) D, B, C, A

Question 8: Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
(a) Belgium (b) India (c) Yugoslavia (d) Netherlands

Answer (c) Yugoslavia
Explanation: Political competition along religious ending ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six different countries.

Question 9: Read the following passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympics mentioned in this chapter?
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring—when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last!
Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’ I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal’.”

Answer: There is mention of racial discrimination in the speech of Martin Luther King Jr in the USA. He is referring to the segregation policies adopted by the Whites towards the coloured people. He wanted to see a world where there was no racial discrimination. he wanted to see that everyone should be treated as equal even if he belongs to one religion, caste, race or another. He wanted a world where all the people should be given equal opportunities to develop and the economic and social interests of everyone should be respected. This speech and the incident at the Mexico Olympics are both parts of the Civil Rights Movement which aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against the African-American people Led by Martin Luther King Jr, this movement practised non-violent methods of civil-disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.