GEO Resources and Development - NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class–10 Social Science
NCERT Solutions
Geography Chapter 1
Resources and Development

Question 1: Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?

(a) Renewable (b) Biotic (c) Flow (d) Non-renewable
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?
(a) Replenishable (b) Human-made (c) Abiotic (d) Non-recyclable
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation (b) Deforestation (c) Over irrigation (d) Overgrazing
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
(a) Punjab (b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh (c) Haryana (d) Uttarakhand
(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir (b) Gujarat (c) Rajasthan (d) Jharkhand
Answer: (i) (d) non–renewable
Explanation: Once they have been used up, there will be no more. Most non-renewable resources are minerals, which are mined, for example, gold, iron ore, titanium. Coal and oil are known as fossil fuels and are also non-renewable.
(ii) (a) Replenishable
Explanation: Tidal energy is a replenishable resource since tides keep coming over and over again due to the moon's force.
(iii) (c) over irrigation
Explanation: In Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to waterlogging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
(iv) (d) Uttarakhand
Explanation: Terrace farming is done on hill slopes and Uttarakhand is the region having hill slopes and here terrace farming is practiced.
(v) (b) Gujrat
Explanation: It is mostly found in areas such as Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. It is formed by weathering of deccan basalt from last 60 million years and paleo organic carbon resource.

Question 2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
  1. Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
  2. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
  3. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
  4. What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
  1. Maharashtra, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are states having black soil. Cotton is mainly grown in black soil. Other crops which can be grown in black soil are rice ,sugarcane,wheat ,Jawar,linseed etc
  2. Alluvial Soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast.
    Three features of alluvial soil:
    • Alluvial soils are very fertile.
    • It contains varied amounts of sand, silt and clay.
    • These soils contain ample amount of phosphoric acid, potash and lime so they are ideal for growing sugarcane, wheat and paddy.
    • The regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
  3. In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by contour which refers ploughing across contour-lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.
  4. Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere, from forest and the materials derived from them and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, animals and plants including human beings.
    Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example rocks ,water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.

Question 3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
  1. Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
  2. How has technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Answer: (i) The use of land is determined by both physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions. Land resources in India are primarily divided into agricultural land, forest land, land meant for pasture and grazing, and waste land. Wasteland includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land used for other non-agricultural purposes such as housing, roads and industry. According to the recent data, about 54% of the total land area is cultivable or fallow, 22.5% is covered by forests and 3.45% is used for grazing. The rest is wasteland, with traces of miscellaneous cultivation.
The land under forest has not increased since 1960–61 because in the post-independence era demand for more land to expand agriculture, mainly after Green Revolution, developmental works and infrastructural facilities, led to clearance of forests areas. Industrialisation and urbanisation also decreased the forest area. Thus, land under forest has increased by only about 4% since 1960-61.
(ii) Technical and economic development has led to more consumption of resources on account of various factors such as:
  • Technological development provides sophisticated equipment. As a result, production increases ultimately leading to consumption of more resources. Technological advancement leads to the conversion of more natural resources into useful resources thus the consumption also increases.
  • Technological development also leads to economic development. When the economic condition of a country rises, the needs of people also rise. It again results in more consumption of resources.
  • Economic development provides favourable environment for the development of latest technologies. It helps to make or convert various materials found around us into resources. Finally, it results in the consumption of newly available resources too.