ECO Development - NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class–10 Social Science
NCERT Solutions
Economics Chapter 1
Development

Question 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
1. its per capita income
2. its average literacy level
3. Health status of its people
4. all the above
Answer : (iv) all the above
Explanation: UNDP publishes its human development report comparing the countries on the basis of educational level of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Question 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
2. Sri Lanka
3. Nepal
4. Pakistan
Explanation: HDI of Sri Lanka is 73 which is much higher than Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which have 139,145 and 147 respectively.

Question 3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
1. Rs 7500
2. Rs 3000
3. Rs 2000
4. Rs 6000
$Average\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}per\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}capita\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}income=\frac{sum\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}of\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}income\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}of\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}all\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}the\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}families}{number\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}of\phantom{\rule{thickmathspace}{0ex}}families}$

Question 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Per Capita Income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. The limitation of this criterion are:
• Per capita income is useful for comparison but it doesn't show the distribution of income.
• It also ignores other factors such as infant mortality rate, literacy level, healthcare, etc.
• Per capita income does not give the true picture as there is a huge population which does not earn at all like children and the senior citizens but they are also included while calculating per capita income. National income rises but its distribution make the rich richer and the poor poorer.

Question 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
World bank only uses per capita income for measuring development while UNDP uses many other factors like infant mortality, healthcare facility education level which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive. As per HDI- 2014, India's rank is 135. On the other hand, the World Bank uses per capita income as the only criterion for measuring development and classifying the countries as rich and poor. Per capita income is useful for comparison, it does not tell us how income is distributed.

Question 6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category.
For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people. However, there are limitations to the use of averages. This does not show the distribution of thing between people. For an example, suppose in a country, the annual income of a rickshaw puller is Rs 8,000 while an MNC employee earns an annual package of Rs 12,00,000. The average income of this country, therefore, will be Rs 6,05,000. Here actual income or status remains unknown. One can clearly consider this as a rich country thereby ignoring the income disparity between two individuals. Averages are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.

Question 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra because, human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health, education, and income. So, this does not imply that per capita income is not useful. Rather, per capita income is one of the development factors and can not be neglected. The World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development and comparing states. But this criterion has certain limitations because of which determination of Human Development Index (HDI) is done using this criterion along with some other development factors like health, education etc. If the rate of population growth, is higher than the rate of growth of national income, this will lead to fall in per capita availability of goods and services and economic welfare.

Question 8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cow dung and solar energy. At present, consumption of energy in India is too high in comparison to its production and reserves. India's known reserves of oil are expected to last about 30-40 years only. So, therefore, other possibilities fifty years from now could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilisation of wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, tidal energy, wave energy, hydroelectric energy and biomass energy especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

Question 9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Sustainable development means that the development at present should not hamper the needs of the future generation of society and it should take place without damaging the environment. The issue of sustainability is the most important for development because development must be in tandem with the future. If natural resources are not sustained then development will stagnate after attaining a certain point of time. Exploiting resources unethically will ultimately undo the development that a country may have achieved. Hence in the future those resources will not be available for further progress.
Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries; this issue is no longer region or nation  specific.Our future is linked together. Sustainability of development is comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists work together.
Sustainable development is important because it saves national budget, fulfils the needs of the people, conserves natural resources, helps in the coordination between the natural resources and people and conserves natural resources for future generation.

Question 10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person". This statement is relevant to the discussion of development as both resources and development go hand in hand. For the sustainability of development, the maintenance of resources is very crucial. Needs can be fulfilled whereas greed can never be satisfied because greed increases with every want to be fulfilled. As the statement claims, the Earth has enough resources- renewable as well as non-renewable to satisfy everyone's needs; however, these need to be used with a view to keep the environment protected so that a balance of production and use is maintained and shortages are avoided.

Question 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
• Deforestation
• Soil erosion
• Falling levels of groundwater
• Depletion of the ozone layer and combustion from automobiles causing extreme air pollution
• Water Pollution

Question 12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
 TABLE 1.6 SOME DATA REGARDING INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBORS FOR 2004 Country Per Capita Income in US$Life Expectancy at birth Literacy Rate for 15+ yrs population Gross Enrollment Ratio for three levels HDI Rank in the world Sri Lanka 4390 74 91 69 93 India 3139 64 61 60 126 Myanmar 1027 61 90 48 130 Pakistan 2225 63 50 35 134 Nepal 1490 62 50 61 138 Bangladesh 1870 63 41 53 137 1. As per the Per Capita Income in US$:Topcountry-SriLankawith4390$; Bottom country - Myanmar with 1027$.
2. Considering the life Expectancy at birth: Top country - Sri Lanka has 74; Bottom country - Myanmar has 61.
3. Literacy Rate for 15+ yrs population: Top country - Sri Lanka has 91; Bottom country - Bangladesh has 41.
4. Gross Enrollment Ratio for three levels: Top country - Sri Lanka is 69; Bottom country - Pakistan is 35.
5. According to the HDI Rank in the world: Top country - Sri Lanka ranks 93; Bottom country - Nepal ranks 138.

Question 13. The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
 State Male (%) Female (%) Kerala 22 19 Karnataka 36 38 Madhya Pradesh 43 42 All Sates 37 46
1. Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
2. Can you guess why around 40 percent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued country? Describe in your own words.
Answer : (i) The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh i.e more per cent of males and females are undernourished in Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) There is enough food in the country, even then 40% of the people in the country are undernourished because:
• A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
• In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get food items at cheaper rates.
• There is a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country. So many people remain backward and poor. As such, they are unable to get nutritious food.